Policies and Guidelines

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)

EPR as an environmental policy approach in which a producer’s responsibility for a product is extended to the post-consumer stage of a product’s life cycle. In practice, EPR involves producers taking responsibility for collecting end of life products, and for sorting them before their final treatment by recycling. EPR schemes can allow producers to exercise their responsibility either by providing financial resources and/or taking over the operational and organisational aspects of the process from municipalities. EPR policy is consistent with the polluter pays principle in so far as financial responsibility for treating end of life products is shifted from taxpayers and municipalities to producers, and ultimately, consumers.

Responsibility of the producers or the retailers , for the end of life management of products. A further approach is to provide incentives for consumers to return the used product to a specified location such as the selling point.

Minimum recycled content can encourage the take back of end of life products. When used in combination with a tax, such standards can strengthen incentives for the redesign of products. Standards can be mandatory or applied by industries themselves through voluntary programmes.

Indirectly support EPR programmes by raising public awareness.

An initial payment (deposit) is made at purchase and is fully or partially refunded when the product is returned to a specified location.

Material Taxes
Involve taxing virgin materials (or materials that are difficult to recycle or contain toxic properties) so as to create incentives to use secondary (recycled) or less toxic materials.

Advanced disposal fees (ADF)
Fees levied on certain products at purchase based on the estimated costs of collection and treatment. The fees may be collected by public or private entities and are used to finance post-consumer treatment of the designated products.

Upstream combination tax/ subsidy (UCTS)
A tax paid by producers subsequently used to subsidise waste treatment. It provides producers with incentives to alter their material inputs and product design and provide a financing mechanism to support recycling and treatment.


Taxes, tax exemptions, subsidies and tradeable permit schemes


Product stewardship, private standards


Eco-labelling, information disclosure


Bans, Licensing, technology standards, public procurement

EPR Schemes

  • Take-back
  • Deposit/Refund
  • ADF
  • Other

           EPR by Policy, Worldwide

  • Packaging
  • Electronincs
  • Vehicles/ Auto Batteries
  • Tyres
  • Others

EPR by Product Type, Worldwide

Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016

The new Solid Waste Management Rules were notified 2016 on April 8, 2016.
The salient features of the SWM Rules, 2016 are as under;

1. Areas Cover: These rules are applicable to;

• Every urban local body (Mega city to Panchayat level),

• Outgrowths in urban agglomerations,

• Census towns as declared by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India,

• Notified areas,

• Notified industrial townships,

• Areas under the control of Indian Railways,

• Airports/airbases,

• Ports and harbours,

• Defence establishments,

• Special economic zones,

• State and Central government organisations,

• Places of pilgrims,

• Religious and historical importance as may be notified by respective State government from time to time and

• Every domestic, institutional, commercial and any other non residential solid waste generator situated in the areas.

2. The Waste Generators

• Every household

• Event organizers

• Street Vendors

• RWAs & Market Associations

• Gated Community having more than area 5000 sq.m.

• Hotels & restaurants, etc.

3. Duties of Waste Generators & Authorities:

• Every Waste Generators shall segregate waste and store separately and hand over to Municipal workers or authorized waste pickers

• Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change shall constitute ‘Central Monitoring Committee’ to monitor and review every year

• MoUD shall frame National Policy on SWM and coordinate with States/UTs, provide technical guidelines, financial support, training to local bodies, etc.

• Departments of Fertilizers & Chemicals shall assist in market development for city compost and make available to companies (3/4 bags compost: 6/7 bags Fertilizers)

• Ministry of Agriculture shall make flexible Fertilizer Control Order, promote utilization of compost, testing facility for compost and issue guidelines.

• Ministry of Power shall fix tariff of power generation from W-T-E project and ensure distribution through companies.

• MNRE shall facilitate infrastructure for waste-to-Energy plants and provide subsidy.

• Secretary-Incharge, UD (state/UT) shall prepare State Policy/Strategy, adopt 3-Rs, coordinate for state planning, identification of common/regional landfills, notify guidelines of buffer zones.

• District Collector/Magistrate shall facilitate identification of landfill site, quarterly review the performance of local bodies.

• Secretary, Panchayats: same as Secy. UD at Panchayat level.

• CPCB shall coordinate with SPCBs/PCCs for monitoring and Annual Reports, formulation of standards, review new technologies, prepare guidelines for buffer zones restricting from residential, commercial and construction activities areas; and inter-state movement of waste.

• Local Authority/Panchayats shall prepare SWM plan with time line and its implementation, segregate, adopt 3-Rs, material recovery, processing/ disposal of Waste, user fee and levy spot fine.

• SPCBs/PCCs shall monitor, issue authorization and regulate.

• Manufacturers/Brand owners shall facilitate collect back wastes of their products and provide pouch for packaging sanitary wastes, etc.

• Industry (cement, power plant, etc.) shall use RDF within 100 km.

• Operator of facilities shall follow guidelines/standards

4. Criteria for Hilly Region:

Avoid landfill, make waste transfer stations, strict action for littering and construct landfill at plain areas.

5. Waste to Energy plant for waste with 1500 Kcal/kg and above for co-incineration in cement and power plants.

6. Time Frame for Implementation of SWM Rules:

• Landfill Identification: 1 year

• Procurement of waste processing facilities: 2 years

• Ensure segregation of waste: 2 years

• Cities up to 1 million population: 2 Years

• Million plus cities: 3 years

• Setting up sanitary landfills: 3 years

• Bioremediation/capping of old landfills: 5 years

7. Review of implementation of rules at Various levels;

• MoEF&CC, Central Monitoring Committee: Every year

• District Collector review performance of Local authorities: Quarterly

• SPCBs/PCCs review implementation of Rules withDMA: Half yearly

• Secretary Incharge, UD- State level Advisory Committee: Half yearly